Friday, January 2, 2015

GLOBAL Strategic Trends - Out to 2045 - a "WAR PLAN" . . . GLOBAL Strategic WAR PLANS

GLOBAL Strategic Trends - Out to 2045 - a "WAR PLAN" . . . GLOBAL Strategic WAR PLANS . . .

INSIDER COMMENT about this program:
A Great Convergence is taking place that WILL constitute a major phase change in the nature of science and technology, with the greatest possible implication on global economies, societies, and global cultures . . Many deceptive agendas have advanced by the radically new capabilities to understand and to manipulate matter that are associated with nanoscience and nanotechnology. What we have known as being human is being altered and redefined . .
There are MANY redundant systems and programs that were secretively developed and are now national and international corporate government policies to transition the global populations into technological societal upheaval . . As you know, the covert use of inserting parallel systems, that replace traditional systems, has long since reshaped our reality . . . These parallel systems have been covertly and purposefully "deployed" upon the public by international banking criminals, corrupt and paid-public-officials, and many others, for the purpose of covert warfare, corporate profits, eugenics (transhumanism) and mind control by using frequencies to interface with the human brain for the optimal and maximum control of mankind . . . In-order to reduce our resistance the air, water, food and many consumer products have been deliberately poisoned with chemicals while enriching the weaponized health industry. We find ourselves in endless wars of aggression, destruction, torture and murder. Almost every aspect of our perceived reality has been altered and redesigned. We now live in a virtual reality of make believe . . We must educate ourselves in-order to make different decisions based upon the knowledge and understanding that we can no longer tolerate this dangerous corrupt monetary and corporate construct that has deceived us!
So lets go over what we were NOT taught: Per Senate Report 93-549 - We are the ENEMY; the Federal Reserve is NOT Federal and has NO reserves - rather we have been fooled into using fiat debt currency; the weather is controlled and weaponized for political control and corporate profit and more; Our food supplies are poisoned; our water has been poisoned; history has been rewritten; we have weaponized health care; the media is propaganda; climate change aka global warming is based upon false science; we do not prevent climate change by reducing our Co2 emissions; fossil fuel is not where petroleum comes from; Primary Water is why we DO NOT have a shortage of water; our schools are indoctrination and disinformation government programs; Sex education in elementary school is MKULTRA mind control/wherein traumatized sexually exploited children become prey to predators - and worse; Wireless frequency devices are weapons - a silent weapons program of warfare turned on us, the people; thousands of people are being targeted, hunted and tortured by directed energy weapons and organized gang stalking networks; the U.S. Government is controlled by corporations and bankers posing as a representative government which it is not - in fact, the U.S. Government is a corporation and does not serve the people; Our local city councils and county boards are incorporated and do not work for us; all wars are bankers wars; military men and women are cannon fodder for the war games; Lawyers aka the BAR - British Accreditation Regency - falsely lure clients into a judiciary system, wherein the clients believe justice will be served, when in truth the courts work for the advancement of the corrupt corporate government - as do the lawyers . . . their is more, however, by understanding what was conveyed above you will be able to comprehend The Global Strategic Trends Program a WAR PLAN, and the urgency to get this information OUT to others . . .
The Global Strategic Trends Program exposes the deliberate and large-scale manipulation of all inhabitants on Earth! All political operations, scientific advancements, economic, intelligence networks, material resources, the military, all physical infrastructure; transportation, transit systems, buildings, pipes, power grid, concrete, steel are being blended with cyber-infrastructure; computer, networks and sensors in ways that are now emerging . . .There have been many companies, corporations, universities, institutions, corporate governments, corporate agencies, lawyers and international bankers that have been aiding, funding and/or creating emerging technologies that are reshaping the world as we have known it. . . Organizations have come together to leverage the creation of these critical emerging technologies. One focus is to re-build the world's transportation,"civil" (rebuilding society), manufacturing and all other infrastructure. .
This is an EXTREMELY disturbing and dangerous global forecast and is a program of WAR. The war games are based upon invented science, the use of silent weapon systems, manufactured consensus, and double speak, all used to trick an intentionally dumbed down citizenry. The invented and falsified science of climate change is being sold as the foundation for economic and environmental policy changes. This program is about the totalitarian grip tightening on society that we have been warned about in many other documents. This Global Trends Program is the desired war games playbook to benchmark the outcomes of bringing in a NEW AGE of global governance and recreating and defining what is human. As you know there have been many that desire life extension, human enhancement, robotics with human consciousness, and seeking to create controlled evolution of man . . . This trends report out to 2045 is the guide book to control and harness the essence of what it is to be human and transform and redefine what being human is.
The Iron Mountain Report reveals the scheme to intentionally use the ecology to create mass pollution - call it Global Warming aka climate change and create the fear necessary to maneuver us into accepting a manufactured climate crisis.
This Global Strategic Trends Program illustrates the anticipated massive societal disruption from the rapid technological changes.
ALL people, globally, are being victimized by the invented false science of climate change that is the disguise for creating a global "market" shift to amass NEW revenues for those few in control . . . These programs are eliminating private property, or the illusion thereof, and reducing the number of homes that will be left after "retirement" of older homes and infrastructure that are uneconomically feasible to bring up to current energy standards. These energy standards are "required" to reduce YOUR Co2 emissions . . .
Let us be clear! Under these invented energy standards, to reduce our Co2 emissions, all existing structures, homes, apartments, condominiums, commercial, industrial, manufacturing, county and federal buildings are noncompliant! All structures must implement the energy efficiency standards to comply with the new energy codes and ordinances. Our compliance will be enforced by issuance of code violations to impose fines, penalties and restrictions.
We have been deceived and enslaved by lack of knowledge or this program would not be advancing without resistance. For Example - This report refers to fossil fuels - our petroleum does not come from dead dinosaurs. This report refers to water scarcity - when the Earth is the Water Planet and we have an abundance of water. . This report refers to massive loss of life, land and food due to worsening weather disasters resulting from climate change. Geoengineering is the massive deliberate manipulation of the Earth's climate . . that is climate change . .
We realize this information is harsh and can be difficult - but given what we hope you already know, you will likely find this valuable . . . and learn methods of NOT CONSENTING!
We recommend watching these YouTubes - "The Age of Transitions", "Who is Running America and the CAP", "Water Crisis Hoax", "Primary Water Explained", "Origins of Oil", "Water Wars Stealing Water for Profit and Power", "Blasting Your City Council with the TRUTH", "Kill - ARkStorm" and other YouTubes on channel . . . Note: At the end of the YouTubes there is recommended reading and reference material. Also, listen to our radio program archives from the Rense Radio Network which is posted on the home page of . . .
The program excerpts you about to read are being launched upon unwitting global populations by means of stealth and deception - NOW YOU KNOW!
With Knowledge We are NOT as Easily Deceived . . . Please Share This Far and Wide . . .
This is a short clip exposing what is headed to your town . . . and illustrates an aspect of the coming enforcements . . .

GLOBAL Strategic Trends - Out to 2045 - a "WAR PLAN" . . . GLOBAL Strategic WAR PLANS . . .

The link below is the entire report - we have pulled excerpts out - which are immediately below the link. .

We recommend scanning through the entire 202 page report - here:
The following pages are EXCERPTS from the above link:
"Our lives and the world we live in will almost certainly change over the next 30 years, with the impacts felt by all".
Corruption and money
If unchallenged, corruption is likely to continue to exacerbate global inequality and conflict. By 2045, consistent attempts to curtail corrupt practices are likely to be made by national governments, international governing institutions, the private sector and non-state actors. Technology is highly likely to play a significant role in both enabling and combating corruption.
Page 4-5
Age and gender imbalances (Young people disadvantaged by the elderly)
Imbalances across regions and countries are likely to exacerbate existing political and social tensions. The global median age is increasing (although the rate of increase is slower in developing countries) with those aged 60 or over comprising the fastest growing population age-group. Indeed, by 2045, 750 million people are likely to be over 65 years old. For those countries with increasingly elderly populations, requirements such as public pensions, health services and long- term care are likely to be ever-more pressing – priorities which could reduce defence spending in most affected countries. Some developing countries do not provide welfare and will not be directly affected by this trend. A declining working population coupled with increasing welfare costs are likely to lead to the retirement age increasing (as has happened in some developed countries). For some governments, a rising welfare burden is likely to lead to them re-evaluating how they provide social welfare.
In societies with an ageing working population, older people are likely to hold an increased proportion of positions with authority and influence which, if not managed effectively, could disenfranchise the younger generation. Compounding this, young people may feel frustrated at the increasing cost of supporting a growing elderly population, particularly if they believe they have been disadvantaged by their elders.
page 6
Migration is likely to increase or, at least, remain constant. In 2005, 191 million people lived outside their country of origin. Today there are 232 million (this figure already "exceeds" our earlier assessment in the 4th edition of Global Strategic Trends). Those countries attempting to limit immigration are likely to be only partially successful. In preceding decades, migration has been characterised by people moving from Asia and Africa to Northern America and Europe.
During 2010-2050, the number of international migrants to developed countries is likely to be about 96 million, whereas the excess of deaths over births is projected to be 33 million, implying total net growth. The main estimated net receivers of migrants are likely to be the US, Canada, UK and Australia, while the main estimated senders are Bangladesh, China, India and Mexico. Without immigration, the population in most developed countries is highly likely to reduce. Those developed countries that do see population growth, therefore, will almost certainly see an increase in the size and importance of their ethnic minority communities.
Page 7
Climate change is likely to drive some people from areas that are particularly badly affected, although not everyone who wishes to leave is likely to be able to do so. Millions of people may be ‘trapped’ in vulnerable areas because of the high costs of migration, unable to raise the capital needed for moving away.
A growing consumer class
A rapidly growing consumer class (those who spend more than ten US dollars a day) will almost certainly be a key driver of the global economy. By 2030, this group is likely to grow to more than five billion from two billion today, while the proportion of consumers who are European and North American is likely to shrink from 50% today to just 22%. Rapid growth in many Asian countries, particularly China and India, is shifting the economic centre of gravity south and east.
Page 13
There could be an increase in trafficking and slavery by 2045, although the trend may be mitigated by improved surveillance technology and international cooperation.
Defence and security implications
■■ Many of the world’s defence and security organisations are likely to incorporate specific gender equality targets.
■■ Increasing numbers of women are likely to have front-line combat roles in armed forces worldwide, mirrored by growing number of females participating in armed resistance movements and terrorist groups.
■■ Sexual violence will almost certainly continue to be a feature of conflict and state violence. Used as a weapon of war, sexual violence can be a significant factor in instability. However, countries and their armed forces are likely to face greater international scrutiny and legislation against such activities.

Page 16
From rural to urban (Historic Buildings are Obsolete Infrastructure) . . .
By 2045, the proportion of people living in urban (city) areas is likely to have increased from a little over 50% to around 70% of the world’s population. Urbanisation will probably increase most rapidly in the developing world. Of the 23 cities expected to have ten million or more inhabitants by 2015, are likely to be in developing countries. The greatest increases in urbanisation are likely to be in Asia, with between 250 and 300 million people likely to move from rural to urban areas over the next 15 years in China alone. Although those who remain in rural areas may experience "increased isolation" as rural populations decline, technological advancements are likely to enable better communication and remote working. Managed successfully, urbanisation could stimulate economic growth. In part, due to the exposure of new ideas and the accessibility of goods and services, it may also act as a spur for civil activism and improve the quality of life for many. While older cities are likely to have established links to resources, new cities may enjoy an infrastructural advantage – they will be able to build transport and communication networks suitable for modern vehicles and ways of working, without the constraints of historic buildings, narrow streets and obsolete infrastructure.
By 2045, there are likely to be around 280 megacities (cities with more than 20 million inhabitants4). Many of these could be agglomerations spanning administrative, and in some cases national, boundaries thereby driving integration and changing governance structures. Europe, for example, may have more than 20 major agglomerations by 2045 – the German Ruhr region, much of the Netherlands and Belgium could become a single gigantic urban area. The taxation rights of some major cities could make them major regional or international actors.
Urbanisation often results in increasing requirements for energy (particularly electricity), which could be a source of considerable tension unless it is provided in a sustainable way. Once people have access to energy, they are likely to always expect it. Some cities, in both developed and developing countries could fail (for example, becoming bankrupt or seeing a breakdown in law and order) – potentially becoming security issues. Correctly managed, though, urban growth could generate greater prosperity and higher tax revenues, potentially offsetting some of these more negative aspects.
Because of their concentrated populations, when disasters (whether natural or man-made) strike cities, large numbers of people are affected. Many of the biggest cities, a number of which are vital to the global economy, are situated in coastal regions which could face more extreme weather events and be vulnerable to rising sea-levels. Furthermore, because of inadequate sanitation, slums could be susceptible to communicable diseases – which could then spread globally because of increased connectivity between cities.
Page 18
Even at current population levels, supply of fresh water is, arguably, insufficient. Factors such as population growth, increasing demand from industry and agriculture, and reliance on unsustainable water sources (such as aquifers) are likely to mean that
many people may not have reliable access to adequate supplies of water. By 2045, global agricultural water consumption could increase by 19%, with global fresh water demands likely to grow by 55% in the same period. Estimates of those suffering from water shortages today vary between 450 million and more than 1.3 billion people. Without mitigation, by 2045 or sooner, around 3.9 billion people – over 40% of the world’s population – are likely to be experiencing water stress. This represents a significant increase on the estimated 2.6 billion people suffering water shortages in 2000.
The poorest people often have extremely limited access to fresh water. Someone living in a slum may only be able to access about five to ten litres daily, while a middle- or high- income individual living in the same city may use about 50-150 litres per day. An estimated 2.2 million people die every year from diseases that cause diarrhoea because of inadequate water and sanitation. This is still likely to be problematic by 2050, when 1.4 billion people (mainly living in developing countries) are unlikely to have basic sanitation. Efforts to improve safe water supply and health-care access have succeeded in reducing deaths from diarrhoea, but these gains may be thwarted as the number of people living in slums increases, while environmental change places further stress on fresh water availability. However, there continues to be advances in water desalinisation technology, as well as activity to reduce water waste and improve water utility. Improvements in waste treatment and purification technologies offer hope that in the future more water could be reused or recycled.
A shortage of water could lead to countries (and communities within them) diverting water for their benefit to the detriment of others. Many water resources are shared by more than one country – 263 river basins and 269 aquifers are shared by two or more countries, and 21 rivers and four aquifers cross the boundaries of more than five countries. As demand for water intensifies, it could lead to conflict. Some experts argue that water scarcity drives closer cooperation and, despite tensions, no modern state has ever declared war on another solely over water. But there are a number of reasons why violent conflict over water may occur by 2045 or sooner. For example, global demand is likely to increase while supplies of fresh water dwindle, yet water management issues are likely to become increasingly complex. The effects of environmental and climate changes will also probably become more severe in many locations, potentially outweighing any beneficial consequences.
Page 22
By 2045, food production is predicted to have increased by nearly 70%, to feed a larger and more demanding population – and it is possible that demand could outstrip supply. Some types of consumption are likely to grow particularly strongly. As affluence grows in the developing world, the demand for more protein-rich diets is also likely to increase. China, for example, has seen meat consumption increase by 63% between 1985 and 2009, and this trend seems likely to continue. Pollution and soil erosion are likely to adversely affect agricultural land . . .
Growing use of nuclear energy raises the possibility of fissile material being obtained by non-state actors as well as states operating outside international laws, potentially causing security threats.
Page 23
Growing US energy independence
A key change to the global energy market by 2045 is likely to be growing US energy independence, driven by recently adopted novel oil and shale gas production techniques such as ‘fracking’. If the current increases in production continue, the US looks set to become the world’s number one oil producer by around 2020 and a net exporter by 2030,
Page 28
Resource protectionism
Increased demand for critical materials – which could include oil and water – has seen governments adopt protectionist measures to boost revenues and secure access to resources. These practices are likely to endure out to 2045. Anti-competitive behaviours such as expropriation of foreign companies, export restrictions, cartel-pricing behaviour, ‘land acquisition’ or high taxation are forms of resource nationalism designed to restrict international supply. For example, potash (used in agriculture) is increasingly subject to government-to-government trade deals rather than being traded on the open market. Rising demand for, and concerns over, access to rare earth elements could continue to motivate countries in trying to develop or secure their own sources of supply, bypassing international markets. While running out of these materials is unlikely within the 2045 timeframe, reliability of supply could be an issue because they are only mined in a very small number of countries (for example, China produces 86% of all rare earth elements). If one of those countries restricted supply, it would be likely to have a significant impact on availability and price. However, such action is not without its costs. Unpredictable and retro-active policy changes to protect resources can, for example, lead to a drying up of foreign investment or customers.
Page 29
Defence and security implications
■■ Competition over some resources is likely to intensify and exacerbate existing political and security tensions, potentially acting as a catalyst for intra-and inter-state conflict.
■■ Demand for food may outstrip supply, leading to a rise in costs. Food shortages could lead to sharp price spikes, which could result in instability in those areas unable to absorb the increase.
■■ Climate change could contribute to increasing incidences of crop failure, potentially causing disruption to global food supplies.
■■ Growing use of nuclear energy raises the possibility of fissile material being obtained by non-state actors as well as countries operating outside international laws, potentially causing security threats.
■■ A reduced requirement for Middle Eastern oil by the US, coupled with a shift in the Middle Eastern markets toward Asia, could bring the US commitment to defence of Middle East export routes into question. However, US involvement in the Arabian Gulf is unlikely to alter significantly. But the US may look to other countries, including China and the EU, to play a greater role in security provision in the Middle East.
Page 30
A growing population will demand more food and water, increasing the strain on the environment out to 2045. As centres of population cluster in vulnerable areas such as coastal regions, the consequences of adverse weather are highly likely to be felt more keenly. By 2045, climate change is likely to have more noticeable effects. Without mitigation, rising sea levels will increase the risk of coastal flooding, particularly in regions affected by tropical cyclones. Droughts and heatwaves are also likely to increase in intensity, duration and frequency. Some of these events could precipitate natural disasters which, because of the interdependencies enabled by globalisation, may have consequences far beyond the site where the disaster occurs.
People and the environment
Human activities are likely to continue to have an impact on the environment. The processes of urbanisation, deforestation, industrialisation, agriculture and fishing have damaged the natural environment. By some estimates, pollution and soil erosion have led to as much as 25% of available land being degraded. Similarly, over-fishing and pollution have reduced the amount of food that can be harvested from the oceans. However, more sustainable farming and fishing methods and better industrial and urban practices could mitigate these adverse effects.
Climate change
Inertia in the climate system means that historic greenhouse gas emissions will almost certainly affect the climate for the next few decades, regardless of any mitigating action taken. By 2045, average global temperatures are likely to have increased by approximately 1.4°C above levels recorded at the end of the 20th century. Without concerted action, it is unlikely that it will be possible to prevent global average temperatures rising more than 2°C above pre-industrial levels. Although there may appear to have been no significant increase in temperatures over the last 10-15 years, periods of slow-down and speed-up in global temperature trends have occurred before, and are likely to occur again. Energy which would usually manifest as a rise in surface temperature is also being absorbed elsewhere in the Earth system, primarily in the oceans. Observations of ocean heat content and of sea-level rise re-enforce this conclusion.
Page 32
Without meaningful effort to secure global consensus on the scale of the problem and how it should be tackled, it will almost certainly be challenging to limit global temperature increases. By the end of the century, the Earth’s climate is likely to be substantially warmer and different from today’s. A large body of scientific evidence indicates that climate change is mostly being driven by human-caused greenhouse gas emissions particularly carbon dioxide (CO2) from generating poser. While the proportion of CO2 emitted by developing countries (particularly India and China) is likely to increase significantly out to 2045 without mitigating action, on a per capita basis, most developed countries’ emissions are likely to remain higher than those of most developing countries.
Abrupt events (or tipping points) such as the failure of the Indian monsoon, changes in large-scale ocean circulation (for example a weakening of the Gulf-stream), substantial melting of the Greenland ice sheet and the release of large quantities of methane from the ocean floor are possible. All could cause major global disruption, although it is not possible to quantify the likelihood of these events occurring by 2045. Heat waves and extremely hot days are likely to become more frequent and intense, as are droughts, while instances of extreme cold are likely to reduce. It is also probable that instances of intense rainfall will increase and that extra-tropical storms move pole-ward.
Historically, the flooding in Pakistan in 2010 displaced an estimated 20 million people, and damaged 1.6 million homes. Similarly, some experts believe that a 2.5cm rise in sea levels would displace 50 million people in the coastal regions of India. The economic impact of extreme events is uncertain, but losses per event from 1980-2010 ranged from a few billion US dollars (USD) to over US$ 250 billion in 2005 following Hurricane Katrina. It seems likely that developing countries will feel the economic impact of climate change particularly sharply, as they are unlikely to have the resources to mitigate its effects as successfully as more developed countries.
The Arctic is likely to see significant change with the melting of sea-ice opening up new routes across the Arctic Ocean during the summer months. Reduced summer sea-ice may present opportunities as new trade routes and areas rich in natural resources open up for exploitation. Thawing permafrost could make transportation to and from Arctic oil and gas facilities problematic as ice roads turn to marsh, particularly in Siberia. The softening of the ground is likely to make new areas suitable for agriculture.
Page 33
Rising sea levels
Global sea-levels are likely to rise by between 0.32–0.38 metres by 2050, although larger increases cannot be ruled out. The effects of sea level rise will not be uniform across the globe and there will be regional variations which affect the vulnerability of certain coastal regions. Currently, between 270 and 310 million people are believed to be at risk of coastal flooding. By 2045, a growing number of low-lying islands could be at risk of near total submersion – displacing entire communities. Without measures to mitigate and adapt to the effects of sea-level rises, by 2045 there could be between 80 and 130 million more people at risk from flooding, three-quarters of them in Asia.
Page 34
Around 20-30% of plant and animal species could be at high risk of extinction due to climate change . . .
Future water stress is likely to be mainly driven by socio-economic factors. The frequency, intensity and duration of droughts in many parts of the world are likely to increase. Climate change is likely to contribute to longer-term changes in water availability, particularly in areas dependant on glacier melt-water. The continued melting of glaciers could increase freshwater availability out to 2045, but may bring with it an increased risk of localised flooding. In the longer term, as glaciers melt, the inter-annual reliability of the supply of water in glacial rivers will be affected. Changing rainfall patterns may mean declining water availability for some, and an excess for others.
Marine life
Marine ecosystems are expected to undergo substantial change by 2045. For example, numerous studies suggest that the increasing acidity of the ocean (due to greater absorption of carbon dioxide) will have harmful consequences for calcifying organisms such as coral reefs and many species of shellfish. Around inland and coastal areas, changing patterns of freshwater runoff, droughts, floods, increasing temperatures and rising sea levels could all have a significant negative effect on fisheries and aquaculture. Inland fisheries are particularly vulnerable to low water levels, changes in spawning grounds, water extraction and modifications to river courses (such as the construction of dams). Freshwater runoff could reduce the salinity of seawater, adversely affecting fishing grounds and coral reefs. Aquaculture depends heavily on adequate water exchange and is vulnerable to temperature extremes and storm damage, particularly in coastal areas.
The impact of pollution, habitat destruction and climate change will almost certainly have a profound effect on wildlife. Some species are likely to adapt to the changes in their environment but many may not be able to. More species will almost inevitably become extinct, with the OECD’s projections indicating that terrestrial biodiversity could decrease by up to 10% by 2050.20 The UN assesses that biodiversity loss has been more rapid in the last 50 years than in any other period in human history, a trend that some commentators suggest shows no sign of slowing. Around 20-30% of plant and animal species could be at high risk of extinction due to climate change. Reduction in biodiversity decreases the natural environment’s resilience when adapting to change, since genetic diversity is the raw material for evolution.
A reduction in biodiversity could also lead to the loss of organisms that keep pest and disease species in check. There may also be significant economic consequences to biodiversity loss, with some suggestions that the annual cost to the global economy is between US$ 2bn and US$ 5bn. Reduction in biodiversity may also place food supplies at risk. At present, four crops (rice, wheat, maize and potato) provide more than 60% of global food energy. Relying so heavily on such a small number of crops means that, if growing conditions change (due to drought, increased temperatures or flooding, for example), we may not have sufficient genetic variety to be able to breed crops to cope with these environmental stresses.
Page 35
The impact of climate change on agriculture is complex and region-dependent. Adverse impacts (for example, heatwaves, droughts, storms and flooding) are expected across tropical regions and much of the Mediterranean basin. Higher latitudes are likely to experience a range of both positive and negative impacts (such as changes in water availability, heat stress , increased growing seasons and decreases in the occurrence of frost damage).
Indirect impacts of climate change – wildfires, land degradation, pests and diseases, extreme rainfall and sea- level rise – could have significant effects. For example, it is currently estimated that each year 10-16% of the total global harvest is lost to plant diseases, and climate change could increase this figure by 2045. Nevertheless, a great deal of the world’s agricultural potential is unused or under-used. If this ‘yield gap’ could be closed, perhaps by technological improvements, GM crops and improved methods of agriculture and farming, the trend towards a decrease in food production could be slowed or reversed. Even using current technology, the potential exists to increase production by up to 40%.
About 60% of the workforce in developing countries (around 1.5 billion people) is employed in agriculture, livestock, fisheries and tourism. While the proportion of people working in these areas is expected to reduce (not least due to increased urbanisation), many are still likely to depend on the health of the natural environment for their livelihoods and may therefore be particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change and environmental degradation. Degraded and threatened environments are likely to lead to affected communities migrating – with potentially destabilising consequences.
Page 38
Reducing greenhouse gas emissions is likely to be the most important means by which climate change is managed – although out to 2045 it appears likely that the drivers of greenhouse gases will continue to increase. Inertia in the climate system means that warming would continue even if emissions were cut to zero tomorrow. Catching greenhouse gases before they are released into the atmosphere through techniques such as carbon capture and storage could play a vital role in reducing climate change – particularly while fossil fuels remain a major energy source. Although at an early stage of development, and with questions remaining about whether they could operate on a large scale, more advanced carbon capture technologies have the potential to convert carbon into useful products such as plastics. At a local level, constructing flood defences, altering agricultural practices in light of changing weather patterns and implementing water conservation measures are likely to be the primary means of adapting to the effects of climate change.
Page 57
Alongside privacy issues, it is also likely to become harder to go ‘off-line’. Those who do may even find that they have made themselves more conspicuous by their absence.
Page 54
Revolutionary advances in how we acquire, store and analyse information, together with dramatic increases in computer processing power, are likely to give us the ability to predict accurately a wide range of phenomena, from crime hot-spots to the effects of climate change. As everyday objects are increasingly connected to the Internet, this vast network of sensors is likely to gather data on more aspects of our lives and the environment, making it hard for anyone to go ‘off the grid’.
‘Big Data’
In 2000, 25% of the world’s information was stored digitally: today it is more than 98%. On this trajectory, by 2045 there will be 20,000 times more digital information than there is today. The ability to collect and analyse this growing volume of information has been termed ‘Big Data’. Such a large amount of data generates yet more information when appropriately analysed, allowing us to identify patterns which may help to counter the spread of disease, combat crime and even predict social and behavioural patterns.
Access to information has until now only let us understand the past, leaving it to people to extrapolate and imagine what this may mean for the future. Big Data is increasingly allowing us to predict future behaviours accurately. Complex data sets which contain crime records, meteorological data, and behavioural heuristics are starting to be used to map probable crime locations3 – and in the future they are likely to deliver far more sophisticated forecasting tools. The advances in computation power mentioned previously are likely to enable further analytical processes development. This could provide the ability to model very large and complex systems more accurately to make predictions in areas such as climate change and population movements.
While Big Data could become important in helping solve some complex global issues, businesses may also become increasingly dependent on it – we are already seeing Big Data being used to predict consumer behaviours. Accountability and situational awareness are likely to increase too, as more aspects of life are quantified and analysed. ( - Note: BIG META-DATA - advancing to thought police, thought crimes - watch the movie Minority Report)
Page 55
The ‘Internet of Things’
The number of devices linked to the Internet is increasing rapidly, with everything from mobile phones to cars and even fridges having an Internet connection. This ‘Internet of Things’ is already a reality, with around 20 billion devices already connected, rising to an estimated 40 billion by 2020. If that trajectory were to continue, there would be around 100 billion devices connected to the internet by 2045. However, increasing availability (not least because they are becoming cheaper and smaller) is likely to lead to a sharp increase in the number of connected devices, so that by 2045 there could be around 50 trillion devices connected to the internet. These devices are likely to be producing and sharing vast amounts of data and information while connected to each other and to additional systems. Such a large number of devices connected across the world will almost certainly require a significant increase in communications infrastructure. The costs and technical challenges involved are likely to mean that there are some global disparities in access, at least in the short to medium term.
Page 56
People in many parts of the world are used to having mobile phones and computers with Internet connections, but by 2045, it is likely that numerous objects will contain some kind of sensor. There will probably be ubiquitous, tiny and cheap monitors reporting on the quality of drinking water, detecting structural damage in buildings and vehicles, and sensing and measuring pollution in the environment. Machinery and consumer products are likely to be monitored for the state of their components and materials, enabling them to report when repair or replacement is necessary. With progress in nanotechnology, vast networks of security sensors could provide continuous monitoring of critical infrastructure (such as buildings, bridges and pipelines), detecting chemical and biological attacks. The fusion of data from a range of sensors, combined with inputs from public sources such as social networking sites, will probably improve profiling and tracking capabilities. Stealth vehicles are likely to find it more difficult to remain hidden and the ability to prosecute covert operations, particularly in urban environments, is likely to become more technically challenging. As the number of connected public sensors increases, the information advantage currently enjoyed by countries’ defence and security forces could be eroded or even reversed as adversaries, including non-state actors, attain similar levels of situational awareness.
Page 58
The uptake of social networking sites and even the use of supermarket loyalty cards shows that – for comparatively small rewards – people are readily persuaded to record their movements, financial transactions and buying habits. This behaviour is highly likely to continue out to 2045.
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National Authorities are almost certain to seek to use this potential mine of information – a development that is likely to raise major privacy concerns. Marketing campaigns are likely to portray the benefits of smart technology and machine- to-machine interaction, but the increased surveillance capability may make others fear an increase of state control. In turn, this is likely to drive the growth of the ‘hactivist’ community characterised by groups such as Anonymous. However, it is likely to be increasingly difficult to avoid the sensor network of a future ‘Internet of Things’, since even remote environments are likely to contain some connected devices. A desire not to be part of the ‘Internet of Things’ may create new markets, for example a holiday resort advertising its facilities as literally ‘getting away from it all’ with a promise that you will be completely ‘off-grid’. This could also lead to a drive to try to create spaces, both physical and virtual, which are unseen or ungoverned by state authorities around the world.
Defence and security implications
■■ Quantum computing could make all codes ‘crackable’ and genuine encryption impossible, as a quantum computer could theoretically try every possible combination of codes simultaneously to unlock a system. If this is the case, armed and security forces may have to physically separate their computer systems from the Internet, posing huge problems for networking and efficiency. Alternatively quantum cryptography could guarantee security of a message.
■■ Better gathering and analysis of data could vastly improve our understanding of physical and virtual environments. Predicting crime hotspots could enable more targeted deployment of police officers. Greater awareness of deficits and surpluses may make logistics more efficient. Similarly, detailed and rapid analysis of social networks could provide a deeper understanding of the local population, its culture and the environment.
■■ As more of our work and social activities depend on interconnected information and communications networks – which may, in places, be extremely vulnerable to attack – there could be more opportunities for criminals and terrorists to have a greater impact on our day-to-day lives. Similarly the ability to keep secrets is likely to become increasingly difficult.
■■ Connectivity of assets with strategic importance (such as those relating to national infrastructure) is likely to increase. Although this is likely to lead to gains in efficiency, it may also make such assets more vulnerable.
■■ An increasing number of devices capable of collecting sensor data could intensify levels of surveillance. Stealth vehicles may find it more difficult to remain hidden and the ability to prosecute covert operations, especially in urban environments, is likely to become more technically challenging. This is particularly significant given the probable increase in the size of urban areas, along with the growing use of surveillance to prevent crime.
■■ As the number of connected ‘public’ sensors increases, the information advantage currently enjoyed by countries’ defence and security forces could be eroded or even reversed as adversaries, including non-state actors, attain similar levels of situational awareness.
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Institutions in Europe, Northern America and Australia may increasingly run their highest quality programmes from campuses in developing countries, as well as introducing more distance-learning courses. As more people learn outside their country of origin, and migrate to pursue careers, it is likely that there will be a drive to "standardise qualifications" at the global level. Even if a common global curriculum is not universally of a common global system. Across the developed world, many schools are likely to be increasingly run (or at least sponsored) by powerful corporate organisations.
Access to education could also become more polarised, depending on wealth or ability to pay. Students may be separated into vocational and academic streams from a young age. As corporate involvement in education grows it may encourage children’s entry to one or other stream at even earlier ages, as corporations and organisations (including the armed forces) seek to identify – and train accordingly – the strongest future performers.
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Machines, jobs and education
Machines are likely to take over certain jobs from people, with developments in artificial intelligence ultimately meaning that education could focus on those (few) areas of human thought and activity that machines are unable to deliver efficiently. This means that education may play an important role in enhancing people’s ability to develop new ideas, to interact empathetically with other people and to take responsibility – all things that it is difficult to envisage machines doing by 2045.
Defence and security implications
■■ Global education levels are likely to increase, but educational inequalities will probably persist, entrenching social discontentment and allowing youth disaffection to continue.
■■ In the new education and training mix facilitated by employers, online and virtual blended learning are likely to predominate, though formal face-to-face learning is unlikely to die out completely.
■■ Some countries may begin to educate and train children assessed as having the potential to succeed in specific careers (including in the armed forces) from a very young age.t1
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Robots or ‘unmanned systems’ – machines capable of carrying out complex tasks without directly involving a human operator – are likely to be as ubiquitous in 2045 as computers are today. Unmanned systems are increasingly likely to replace people in the workplace, carrying out tasks with increased effectiveness and efficiency, while reducing risk to humans. This could ultimately lead to mass unemployment and social unrest.
As robots become more lifelike, perhaps capable of appearing to express emotion, interactions with people are likely to become more sophisticated. The increased capability of robots is likely to change the face of warfare, with the possibility that some countries may replace potentially large numbers of soldiers, sailors and airmen with robots by 2045. However, military decision-making is likely to remain the remit of humans for ethical reasons, at least in western countries. Others may not be so willing to make the same trade-offs between speed and accountability.
The proportion of older workers in the global labour force is likely to increase out to 2045, with a possible corresponding "decrease" in opportunities for younger people. Flexible working practices are likely to become more widespread, with people employed on shorter-term contracts and a growth in working remotely. Workers will probably have less predictable income and increasing economic insecurity. By 2045, there is likely to be greater equality between men and women in the jobs market, particularly in the developed countries. In part, this may be driven by a global shift away from manual labour, towards a more knowledge-based economy.
By 2045, it is even possible that robots will take on combat roles.
Automation and Work
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Development in robotics may mean that robots are almost physically indistinguishable from human beings . . .
Global manufacturing is currently evolving from a highly labour-intensive process towards more information technology- based processes. This is, in places, driving
a trend towards manufacturing processes relocating closer to their consumers, to avoid long supply chains. This could affect the balance of manufacturing in the developed and developing world, with less need for conventional manufacturing jobs in many regions. Automation already facilitates this trend, and we expect to see additive manufacturing (more commonly known as ‘3-D printing’) also making a significant contribution. Additive manufacturing has the potential to transform the manufacturing industry, with performance and cost- effectiveness rapidly improving to the point where large-scale adoption for manufacturers is plausible well within the 2045 timeframe. 3-D printing enables on-demand production, allowing items to be created quickly when an order is placed, rather than large amounts of costly stock having to be held in readiness for prolonged periods. With more decentralised production, products could be designed and printed for local consumption, potentially reducing reliance on expensive imports and requiring less industrial infrastructure than conventional manufacturing. It is also likely that personal use of 3-D printers will increase rapidly, allowing for unprecedented levels of mass customisation and even the ‘democratisation’ of manufacturing, as consumers and entrepreneurs begin to print their own products. By 2045, additive manufacturing systems could be a common feature in the home and be capable of producing a wide range of outputs – food, clothing, and even complex devices with mechanical and electronic components.
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As robots become more sophisticated, taking on a wider range of responsibilities, novel legal questions will almost certainly emerge. For example, when robots malfunction, is it the owner, manufacturer or programmer who is responsible? Does a robot with biological components have rights? Changes to legislation will almost certainly be required, but past experience suggests it is highly likely that legislation will fail to keep up with the speed of technological developments.
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Maritime choke point
By 2045, sea lanes are likely to continue to play a major role in the global economy, despite probable advances in additive manufacturing and improvements to air and land based transport. On current forecasts, the tonnage of goods transported by sea is likely to double within the next 30 years. Anticipated growth in computing power, situational awareness and automation could mean that the shipping of goods will be quicker, cheaper and more reliable. Shipping is also likely to be safer than ever before, driven by more accurate long-range weather forecasts and improved ship construction and operating procedures. As such, a significant amount of the world’s economy would depend upon maritime trade - some countries could face major financial crises if sea transport became significantly disrupted.
If tensions rose between countries near to a vital maritime choke point, particularly if threats to block the sea lane were made, the international community would almost certainly act. Countries that are likely to be highly internationally active by 2045 (such as Brazil, China and the US) could be expected to work together to try and find a resolution. Should diplomatic efforts fail to reduce tensions, the international community could approve the deployment of an international naval task force to ensure that key sea lanes were kept open. Land-based international observers could be deployed to those countries bordering the choke point and air, cyber and space surveillance of the region is likely to be intensified.
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Defence and security implications
■■ Antimicrobial-resistant infection could significantly increase medical risk on military operations.
■■ Novel medical and surgical interventions will almost certainly improve casualties’ survival, and recovery rates.
■■ Advances that allow patients to interact with their prosthetics and other aids are likely to lead to new ways to connect the able-bodied to machines and computers.
■■ Some countries (and individuals) are likely to use advanced medical techniques, such as genetic modification, to gain a competitive advantage. Others will probably constrain their development for ethical reasons.

Drug and treatment delivery
In 2001, the first camera pill was approved by the US Federal Drug Administration for diagnostic applications. Seven years later, a pill capable of being electronically programmed to control medicine delivery according to a pre-defined drug release profile was ready for serial manufacturing, and being used as a research and development tool. Current advances have produced a pill which can monitor the patient, communicate with external diagnostic systems and respond to instruction for the targeted delivery of drugs within the digestive tract. The next evolution will probably see further integration of monitoring and drug delivery, with automated diagnostic and response systems. As technology advances, the size of devices is likely to be reduced while retaining the same capability. It seems probable, therefore, that there will be future medical devices small enough to travel in the bloodstream.
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As we live longer, different types of diseases, such as dementia, are likely to become more prevalent. Current estimates indicate 35.6 million people worldwide are living with dementia. This is likely to double by 2030 and more than triple by 2050 if no treatment is found. Dementia is a costly condition.
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Mental health conditions are the leading cause of healthy years lost worldwide.
Mental health
The global cost of mental health conditions in 2010 was estimated at US$ 2.5 trillion. This is likely to more than double to US$ 6.0 trillion by 2030. Of these costs, 65% are incurred by developed countries and this is not expected to change over the next 20 years. By disease, mental illness accounted for the largest share of the global economic burden in 2010 and is likely to in 2030, just slightly more than cardiovascular diseases (followed by cancer, chronic respiratory disease and diabetes). Mental health conditions are the leading cause of healthy life years lost worldwide and account for 37% of the healthy life years lost from non-communicable diseases.
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Were obesity to be considered a disease, there would arguably already be a global obesity pandemic. By 2008, an estimated 1.5 billion adults globally were overweight and 500 million adults were obese. An estimated 170 million children globally were also classified as overweight or obese. This includes more than 25% of all children in some countries – more than double the proportions from the start of the global rise in obesity in the 1970s. Unlike other major causes of preventable death and disability, such as tobacco use, injuries and infectious diseases, there are no examples of populations in which rising obesity has been reversed by public health measures.
The increases in obesity in adults are widely projected to continue to rise in the next 10 to 20 years. PageDevelopments in technology are likely to lead to significant improvements in medicine and health, such as the potential fordeveloping cures for
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Theoretically plausible geoengineering methods (intentional, large-scale activities intended to counteract aspects of climate change) have been proposed for a number of years. Detailed studies on the environmental implications of different geoengineering activities have recently begun to appear, but large-scale testing and implementation of such methods has not occurred - in some cases due to public opposition. One theoretical "solar" not occurred – in some cases due to pub radiation management’ technique would aim to disperse sulphates into the upper atmosphere, reflecting the sun’s rays back out to space, producing a cooling effect. However, as with most geoengineering techniques, there are questions about how to maintain the intervention, and minimise the potentially harmful side-effects. For example, it is not known what the long- term effects of dispersing large quantities of sulphates into the atmosphere would be. Over-reliance on particular geoengineering technology to mitigate the effects of climate change could also render users vulnerable radiation management’ technique would aim to disperse sulphates into the upper atmosphere, reflecting the sun’s rays back out to space, producing a cooling effect. However, as with most geoengineering techniques, there are questions about how to maintain the intervention, and minimise the potentially harmful side-effects. For example, it is not known what the long- term effects of dispersing large quantities of sulphates into the atmosphere would be. Over-reliance on particular geoengineering technology to mitigate the effects of climate change could also render users vulnerable to catastrophic effects if equipment failed or was sabotaged. It is not clear therefore what, if any, role geoengineering will play by 2045 in countering the effects of climate change, and the extent to which it could heighten international tensions.
Defence and security implications
■■ Extreme weather events, such as flooding and droughts, are likely to increase in both frequency and intensity in a number of regions. Extreme events will almost certainly continue to cause widespread damage and loss of life, although our warning mechanisms, defences and ability to respond may also improve in the same timeframe.
■■ Reductions in the extent of summer Arctic sea-ice could open up new shipping routes during the summer months and boost economic growth in the region – increasing its strategic significance for many countries.
■■ Degraded and threatened environments are likely to lead to affected communities migrating – with potentially destabilising consequences.
■■ Armed and security forces, both at home and abroad, are likely to be more frequently tasked with providing humanitarian assistance and disaster relief, perhaps supporting indigenous responders.
■■ Without mitigation measures such as carbon capture and storage, continued reliance on coal and hydrocarbons for the majority of energy demand may exacerbate climate change and its knock-on effects.
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Potential applications
DNA nanotechnology to fabricate nano-scale devices.
The self-assembly mechanism of DNA could be harnessed to fabricate mechanical, electrical and optical devices
and circuits that may be ten times smaller than current technology allows.
Significant expansion of the capabilities of computers, such as improved processing power; better ability to synthesise materials by design; the development of advanced therapeutic and drug delivery systems; and ultimately, the development of nanobots.

New developments in piezoelectric materials (materials that turn kinetic energy into electrical energy) could allow devices without batteries to run on power harvested from vibrations and operate at more extreme temperatures.
Constructing devices able to operate in normally unreachable or unsafe locations, such as the monitoring environmental conditions in places too dangerous for humans.

Replacements for traditional materials
Micro-alloys such as palladium-based metallic glass with a strength and toughness greater than any known material.
May be used in small-scale components, leading to better- constructed aircraft and spacecraft.
Graphene paper. Flexible and inexpensive to produce, and around ten times stronger than steel.
Replacements for a range of conventional and existing composite structural materials, far stronger than those available today. Could also support miniaturisation and sensors with greater sensitivity and accuracy.

Responsive materials
Magnetic shape-memory alloys. Materials that change shape and mechanical properties when a magnetic field is applied.
Ultra-efficient engine valves that open and close automatically; positioning tools for microsurgical procedures; sensors for detecting environmental contaminants; and less toxic batteries. Applications likely to be limited to a small scale, due to the challenge of integrating the required high magnetic field actuation system.

Self-repairing metal. Metal that responds to damage by ‘healing’ itself, such as nickel super-alloys with designed- in defects that allow cracks to repair themselves under normal loading conditions.
Better structural materials that could be used in turbine blades, giving better resistance to fatigue.

Information-providing protective coatings. Chemical reactions that are triggered by various failure mechanisms, resulting in a change of visual appearance to indicate when maintenance or repair is required.
Active corrosion protection systems; coatings which indicate exposure to chemical or biological agents; coatings which indicate aging.
Artificial materials engineered to exhibit properties that only rarely occur naturally

Nanospheres. A transparent material made of self- assembling nanospheres that is the stiffest organic material ever created, surpassing the properties of stainless steel and even Kevlar.
Revolutionary improvements in body armour, with the potential for new ways to customise products, such as printed body armour. A component for strengthening existing metals and composites; creating medical implants.
Ultra-lightweight and ultra-absorbent materials such as highly-porous carbon constructs one-sixth the density of air and highly absorbent.
Current materials used for cleaning up oil spills absorb around ten times their weight in oil, but new materials show potential to handle 900 times their weight in oil with very high rates of absorption. Capture and transport aerosols such as pollutants and water vapour.

Jelly-forming polymers so effective that a kilogramme of the compound could turn the water within an Olympic-sized swimming pool into jelly.
Treating wounds; altering or denying access to waterways.
Programmable matter. Materials that can be programmed to alter themselves at the molecular level into various shapes and then disassemble to form entirely new ones.
Compounds that can reform the shape of components
in real-time, similar to holograms, could allow the remote projection of a replica of a person or object, or enable robots to change size (and perhaps even state of matter) to navigate narrow passages or around obstacles.
We have inserted the Conflict MAP below from an earlier edition of the Global Strategic Trends Program 2007 - 2035 . .

Strategic Trends is an independent view of the future produced by the Development, Concepts and Doctrine Centre (DCDC), a Directorate General within the UK’s Ministry of Defence (MOD). It is a source document for the development of UK Defence Policy.
This edition of Strategic Trends is benchmarked at December 2006. It is a live document and will be updated regularly on our website as new thinking emerges and trends develop.

‘I have but one lamp by which my feet are guided, and that is the lamp of experience. I know no way of judging the future, but by the past’.
‘People who worry about problems that others are not worrying about are irritating and are disparaged after the event. People who were right when others were wrong are even more irritating’.
We believe that the future will happen as a result of long-wave themes and developments that unite the past, the present and the future.

Rapid medical advancements
A game-changing medical breakthrough, similar in impact to
the discovery and mass-production
of antibiotics, could significantly
extend the human lifespan and dramatically reduce the incidence of non-communicable diseases such as cancers. Initially, this breakthrough would probably only be available
to the very rich, exacerbating social tensions. As the treatment became accessible to everyone, there would be a significant impact on populations, as life span dramatically increased. Without mitigating action, there could be a subsequent unsustainable increase in demand for food, water and housing.
Rapid medical advancements
A game-changing medical breakthrough, similar in impact to
the discovery and mass-production
of antibiotics, could significantly
extend the human lifespan and dramatically reduce the incidence of non-communicable diseases such as cancers. Initially, this breakthrough would probably only be available
to the very rich, exacerbating social tensions. As the treatment became accessible to everyone, there would be a significant impact on populations, as life span dramatically increased. Without mitigating action, there could be a subsequent unsustainable increase in demand for food, water and housing.

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